Taiwan Earth System Model (TaiESM) is the climate model developed in the Consortium for Climate Change Study (CCliCS) supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan. TaiESM is spun-up using CMIP5 preindustrial conditions, such as greenhouse gas concentrations, surface aerosol emissions, solar constant, and land-use types. The spin-up integration continues for 500 years, and the climate state at the end of year 500 is used as the initial condition for the 500-year preindustrial control (hereafter piControl) simulation. The historical simulation then starts at the end of piControl (i.e., year 1000) with observationally based forcing, including changes in the solar constant, greenhouse gas concentrations, surface aerosol emission, and volcanic eruptions, from 1850 to 2005.



The Consortium for Climate Change Study (CCliCS) project major to develop Taiwan’s capability in model development, develop a Community Earth System Model (CESM) Suite that can be further improve locally, and provide it for use by research community. Therefore, we design some experiments for some climate research issues in the following examples.

  • Climate Change

    Using prescribe sea surface temperature to drive global model to simulate climate change from heretofore to present-day.

  • Natural Variability

    Simulating the nature variability in Earth before the Industrial Revolution (1850 year).

  • High-resolution

    It is the high resolution simulation. Horizontal resolution is 0.25 degree and it`s 3 hour data output. It can help us to study some detail events.

  • Scenario

    Following the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) to setup our model to assess and project future climate change impact.

  • MJO Simulation

    It is daily output data for Madden and Julian Oscillation (MJO) research.



By participateing in GFDL’s development of a global climate modeling system, we focus on modifying the system to provide enhanced high resolution over Taiwan area. We not only contribute directly to a unique global system for simulating the regional climate changes for the East Asia region with high resolution, but also provides a different approach for regional climate simulation from downscaling or nesting.


c384 resolution (~25km) 

c192 resolution (~50km)

  • c192_amip (1979-2008)
  • c192_amip_06 (1980-2008)
  • c192_amip_07 (1980-2008)
  • c192_amip_08 (1980-2008)
  • c192_rcp85_06c1 (2075-2100)
  • c192_rcp85_06c2 (2075-2100)
  • c192_rcp85_06c3 (2075-2100)
  • c192_rcp85_06ens (2075-2100)
  • c192_rcp85_07c1 (2075-2100)
  • c192_rcp85_07ens (2075-2100)
  • c192_rcp85_07ens (2075-2100)
  • c192_rcp85_08ens (2075-2100)
  • c192_rcp85_09ens (2075-2100)


At a September 2008 meeting involving 20 climate modeling groups from around the world, the WCRP's Working Group on Coupled Modelling (WGCM), with input from the IGBPAIMES project, agreed to promote a new set of coordinated climate model experiments. These experiments comprise the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5).

  • Pre-industrial control:

    Impose non-evolving, pre-industrial conditions, which may include prescribed atmospheric concentrations of all well-mixed gases (including CO2 ) and some short-lived (reactive) species. Or prescribed non-evolving emissions or concentrations of natural aerosols or their precursors, and some short-lived (reactive) species.

  • Historical (1850- at least 2005):

    Impose changing conditions (consistent with observations), which may include atmospheric composition (including CO2 ), due to both anthropogenic , volcanic influences,solar forcing and land use. Emissions or concentrations of short-lived species and natural and anthropogenic aerosols or their precursors.

  • AMIP (1979- at least 2008):

    Impose SSTs & sea ice (from observations), but with other conditions (including CO2 concentrations and aerosols) as in expt.

  • RCP4.5 (2006-2100):

    Radiative forcing stabilizes at ~4.5 Wm-2 after 2100.(if ESM, save CO2fluxes from the surface to calculate allowable emissions)

  • RCP8.5 (2006-2100):

    Radiative forcing reaches ~8.5 Wm-2 near 2100.(if ESM, save CO2 fluxes from the surface to calculate allowable emissions)

  • RCP2.6(2006-2100):

    Radiative forcing peaks at ~2.6 Wm-2 near 2100.

  • RCP6(2006-2100):

    Radiative forcing stabilizes at ~6 Wm-2 after 2100.

  • HistoricalNat (1850- at least 2005):

    Historical simulation but with natural forcing only.

  • HistoricalGHG (1850- at least 2005):

    Historical simulation but with greenhouse gas forcing only.

  • HistoricalMisc:

    Historical simulation but with other individual forcing agents or combinations of forcings. For example, land use changes only, anthropogenic aerosols only, anthropogenic sulfate aerosols only, or volcanic aerosols only, etc.

  • HistoricalExt:


In addition to re-analysing all the old data using a consistent system, thereanalyses also make use of much archived data that was not available to the original analyses. This allows for the correction of many historical hand-drawn maps where the estimation of features was common in areas of data sparsity. The ability is also present to create new maps of atmosphere levels that were not commonly used until more recent times.